Alexandria

Alexandria is the ancient city left behind by the Greeks and Romans, the city that young Alexander the Great had envisioned as a great port for his empire and the city of Cleopatra. Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt right after Cairo and the largest sea port. The population is 5 million. Alexandria is about 30 km along the coast of the Mediterranean. Egyptians called Alexandria ” The pearl of the Mediterranean”.

Ancient Alexandria is the birth place of the modern world. Different great civilizations and cultures developed around Alexandria in different times. The ancient empires includes: Ancient Egyptians (c. 3000-1000 BC); Assyrians and Babylonians (c. 1000-500 BC); Persians (c. 550-330 BC); Greeks (c. 330-60 BC); and Romans (C. 60 BC – 140 AD).

Ptolemies founded the Museum or Royal Library of Alexandria in 283 BC and Alexandria University. during the Greek Era. Scientists arrived at scientific facts concerning the earth’s rotation around the sun and approximate circumference of the planet. The university was also famous for the study of medicine particularly anatomy and surgery. Most famous of the university scientists were the geometrician Euclides, the geographer Ptolemy and the Egyptian historian Maniton

Macedonian ruler, Alexander the Great conquered Egypt from the Pharos in 323 B.C. Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great. Alexandria became the capital of the Ptolemic rule in Egypt, where stately palaces and gardens were built. Alexandria was well-known not only as a center of outstanding achievements in arts, science, industry and trade but also as the prime sea harbor on the Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria Lighthouse is considered by the Greeks as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Alexandria was further well-known for its University, which symbolized a great civilization. Alexandria was considered to be the most important trading city on the Mediterranean and regarded as a cultural and scientific center. Alexandria was noted for its commerce and wealth.

French troops led by Napoleon stormed the city on July 2nd 1798. That is why many streets in Alexandria are written in both Arabic and French. Later on, the British expedition arrived the city in 1801. The British won a considerable victory over the French at the Battle of Alexandria in March 1801.

There are about 40 cities named Alexandria worldwide including 15 Alexandria cities in USA and 2 Alexandria cities in Canada.

The Alexandria library was the hub of scholars from everywhere. The scholars gathered to study astronomy, physics and anatomy. The library destruction more than 1600 years ago is a mystery buried in time.

Alexandria library was the ancient world’s single greatest archive of knowledge. It has been estimated that at one time the large Library of Alexandria held over half a million documents from Assyria, Greece, Persia, Egypt and India.

The reasons of the loss of the library are not known. The great library was burned and much of ancient history, literature and learning was lost.

Today, The new high-tech library, designed by Norwegian architects, looks from the distance like a silvery sun rising. It is located on the edge of the Alexandria Mediterranean sea side.

Ironworks History

The first sign of iron use come from the ancient Egyptians. Ancient Egyptians used wrought iron for hardware. The structural use of wrought iron dates from the middle ages, when bars of wrought iron would be used to tie masonry arches and domes and as structural building material for construction. Egypt switched using bronze to iron during the iron age. The iron age was underway by 1000 BC. Iron is a metal extracted from iron ore. The most common ore is iron oxide. Iron is found in iron oxides. Egyptians mixed iron with carbon to form wrought iron. Wrought iron is pure iron having a small carbon content. Wrought iron has been used for thousands of years.

Ornamental ironwork is always referred to as wrought iron. Wrought iron means worked iron. Ancient Egyptians found that much harder iron can be created by long heating the wrought iron in a bed of charcoal. Ancient Egyptians separate iron from iron ore in furnace. Iron is the most used of all the metals due to low cost and high strength over all other metals. Iron is not found as a free metal in nature. Iron is one of the most common elements on Earth.

Ancient Egyptians were the first builders in history. Egyptologists and historians consider ancient Egyptians high in architectural design and construction engineering using raw materials and simple tools. Nile valley is home of the pyramids and sphinx which are among the famous architectural buildings in the world. The architectural elements used by the ancient Egyptian builders were mainly stones without mortar. The main area of cultural expression in ancient Egypt was architecture. Wrought iron has been used in buildings from the earliest days of civilization. The use of wrought iron in tension guaranteed its wide use over cast iron as cast iron is strong only in compression. Wrought iron is unlike cast, in that it is not brittle, and seldom breaks. For this reason, wrought iron work is frequently delicate.

Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of France in 1804. He considered himself the greatest world ruler since Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar.

Napoleon conquered Italy and Egypt. Napoleon’s fascination with his conquest of Egypt and Italy created so much interest in everything related to both Mediterranean countries. This is how the European iron work has roots in Egypt.

Furniture in the European style contains unique architectural elements in the design can also be very ornamental and have geometric elements as well.

European wrought iron work can be very beautiful with iron leafs, rosettes and vines.The wrought iron European furniture usually has polished marble tops.

Wrought iron furniture is a must for classic old world European style look.

The demand for higher dynamic loads in bridges and warehouse buildings, and the ever greater spans of train sheds towards the end of the nineteenth century, led the designers of buildings to acquire the technology developed to build ships of iron, and create beams of riveted wrought iron rolled sections. By the turn of the century this had led to buildings completely framed in wrought iron, and later steel and girder sections.

wrought iron is one of the most durable materials compared to wood and aluminum. However, wrought iron corrosion resistance, cost and weight are disadvantages compared to the same materials.

As far as existing iron structures, iron work is often found fastened together with riveted joints. Iron work is commonly supposed to be nearly free of maintenance. Unlike wood work, iron work is left to rust for long time, The only attention that much important iron work receives, is periodic major overhaul, at great expense. The most common reason for the rusting of wrought ironwork, is the gathering of water in places which will not dry.
wrought iron outdoors gazebo

World Historical Gates

The following are the most important gates in history:

  1. The Gates of Alexander: The Gates of Alexander were a barrier built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the barbarians of the north from the south.
  2. Sungnyemun Gate: Seoul, Korea
  3. Kashmiri Gate: Delhi, India
  4. Panama Canal Locks:the largest canal gates in the planet
  5. Gates of Old City, Jerusalem: There were four gates to the Old City during the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. one set of gates on each side. Suleiman the top of the Ottoman empire built eleven gates. The gates closed before sunset and opened at sunrise. The gates are Gates Al Gadid, Gates Alamoud, Gates AlSahairad, Gates Sittna Maryam, Gates alMaghariba, Gates ElNabi Daoud, Gates alKhalel and 4 other sealed gates
  6. Cairo Gates:

Gawhar El Sakaly during the Fatimid reign (969-1171) established El Fostat city or Cairo of El Moez which is now a part of greater Cairo. The city had many buildings and parks. It was a hub for rulers and princes. He installed walls including entry gates around the city to enter or exit the city.

The walls were instrumental to protect the city in case of war and for management of traffic in state of peace. The city was like a citadel. Some of Cairo Gates still exist till today.

The gates of Cairo are as follow:
Gates Al Wazer
, It was built in 1174 by Qaraqush, Saladin’s Minister, to defend the capital. It is no longer exist. It was called Bab El Haded Gates

Gates El Bahr, one of the outside Cairo gates at the north wall

Gates El Seada

Gates El Selsela, El Jabel Citadel
It is known nowadays as Alarab Gates. It overlooked El Jabel Citadel. This gates was removed due to a crack in 1884.

Gates El GharebIt was destroyed and replaced by Al Azhar University.

Gates El Barkia, Built by Saladin in 1184

Gates El Gaded , built in 1170, It is still exist.

Gates El Husenia, This gate was destroyed in 1895.

Gates El Khalk , built in 1241

Gates El Khoga , No longer exist

Gates Darb El Laban, built in 1092, called Bab El Metwali.

Gates Qasr El Selehdar, established in 1347

Gates El Qela

Gates Al Akhdar, Was built by the Fatimid and still exist

Gates El Qantara, established by Salah El Din El Ayoubi in 1173, it is no longer exist

Gates El Ghory

Gates El Fetouh, established in 1087, it is still exist.

Gates El Nasr, established in 1085, it is still exist.

Gates Khan El Khalili, established in 1511, It is still exist

Gates El Tawfik, established in 1097

Gates El Farag

Gates Qayet Bey, established in 1494, other name is El Sayeda Aisha Gates

Egypt Architectural Antiques Doors, Gates

France had colonial empires in 17, 18 and 19th centuries. When Napoleon arrived in Cairo during the French invasion of Egypt in 1798. his French designers influenced the furniture design style in Egypt to be in traditional European taste. French land forces surrendered to the British on September 2, 1801.

Many of the architectural designs in Egypt are influenced by the French short occupation to Egypt dating from the late 19th century. Many building in Egypt have French colonial doors, wrought iron French style gates and French design balconies.

Most of Egypt French colonial doors consist of top transom, and 2 panels. Egyptians call the whole set of 2 doors and top transom as one door. The transom is usually is hand forged from wrought iron. The top of the panels are hand crafted from wrought iron. The rest of the French Colonial doors are made from Pine. Each half view door features a window ornamented with hand-forged and riveted ironwork a top heavy trimmed panels. The window is hinged on the interior side of the door, allowing it to be opened for ventilation. The doors have various dings, scratches, chips, and holes typical of an old door. The wrought iron of the transom matches the wrought iron at the top of the panels.

The wrought iron workmanship is by hot banding the wrought iron for acquiring the requested shapes and all connections are riveted. No welding was known at the time of production.

The French colonial and Moorish doors have many different designs and sizes. Many of the doors have a width around 45 inches and height of panels is around 65″. Most of the old doors were made more than 70 years ago. Owners of houses in the past competed over the beauty of the house architecture, whether the engravings in the interior or the outer facades and doors

The old doors decorative details signs reflect the culture and identity of the house owner.  Arabic language Quran verses on the door show that the owner is a Muslim. The menorah seven candles and Star of David on the door shows that the owner is Jewish. Unfortunately, continuing to demolish old houses will lead to the loss of unique identity of Egypt heritage.

The handmade and unparalleled architectural antiques are displayed on the market as artistic pieces, and owners of palaces, properties, antiques dealers, fans, store owners and showrooms antiques traders inside and outside Egypt buy them.

A1 Egypt carries a wide range of both antiques and reproduction ornamental iron gates, doors, balconies, fences, shutters, windows, tiles, marble and other hard to find designs. Our wonderful selection of architectural treasures makes us the main hub in Egypt for architects, builders, decorators, collectors, interior designers, developers and fans. We offer thousands of unique, unusual, and hard-to-find home decor items to our international clientele.

We buy our inventory of architectural salvage from demolished or about-to-be-demolished buildings all over Egypt. Because our inventory is ever-changing, we are unable to catalog all items. However, we keep and have access to a constant inventory of all types of architectural antiques.

wrought iron gates and balconies of this building are available
Moorish Wooden Arch
Mashrabia

Egypt Currency Roots

Egyptian Money

Egyptian pound is the currency of Egypt. the abbreviation is LE or L.E. Since the beginning of the circulation of silver and gold coins in Egypt and until 1834, no specified monetary unit existed to serve as a basis for the monetary system in Egypt. In 1836 the Egyptian pound was put into circulation.

Because Egyptian funds were insufficient to satisfy the requirements of large transactions as well as foreign trade, and because of the use of foreign coins for this purpose, legal exchange rates were fixed by force of law for important foreign currencies which became acceptable in the settlement of internal transactions. Fluctuations in the value of silver in addition to the adoption of the gold standard by most of the countries trading with Egypt, particularly the United Kingdom, led to the application of the gold standard, on a de facto basis, after almost thirty years of a bimetallic standard.

Following the financial crisis resulting from the accumulation of Egypt’s external debt, the Monetary Reform Law was issued in 1885. By virtue of this Law, the gold standard became the basis for the Egyptian monetary system, and the country had a unified currency, the Egyptian gold pound.

Gold coins remained the medium of exchange until 1898 when the National Bank of Egypt was established and was granted, by the government, the privilege to issue Egyptian banknotes, payable in gold for a period of 50 years. The National Bank of Egypt started issuing banknotes for the first time on the 3rd of April 1899.

The currency circulated in Egypt consisted of gold Sterling pounds and Egyptian banknotes convertible into gold. This situation continued up to 2/8/1914 when a special Decree was issued making Egyptian banknotes a legal tender and suspending their convertibility into gold. Thus, the Egyptian pound banknote became the basic currency unit, and the base of the Egyptian monetary system was changed to fiduciary paper money standard. Accordingly, gold coins were no longer used in circulation, with the result that the volume of note issue increased from LE 11.6 million at the end of 1915 to LE 3557.0 million at the end of 1980, and further to LE 38320.0 million at the end of 1999. In 1930, for the first time in the history of Egyptian banknotes, a watermark was used in issued banknotes. This was followed, towards the end of 1968, by using a metallic thread (in notes issued by the Central Bank of Egypt) as a guarantee against counterfeit instead of dependence on complexity of colors .Other features against counterfeit were found in the detailed specifications of each currency. Holograms are currently added to large denomination notes.

On the 19th of July 1960, Law No.250 was promulgated. It was amended in November of the same year by Law No.277 with respect to the Central Bank of Egypt and the National Bank of Egypt. The Law provided for the establishment of the Central Bank of Egypt conferring upon the CBE the right of issuing Egyptian banknotes. Several changes were introduced with respect to the watermark, the designs shown on the notes and the colors.

The Central Bank of Egypt started issuing banknotes using local printing plant instead of printing them abroad. The plant’s production of banknotes in different denominations started in December 1968. The Bank also served some Arab central banks in printing their banknotes.

In view of the increasing need of banknotes to facilitate transactions resulting from the growth of economic activity, following the introduction of the open-door policy, the Central Bank of Egypt issued notes of large denominations (20,50,100).It launched the denomination of 20 pounds in May 1977 and 100 pounds in May 1979 and 50 pounds in March 1993.

Moorish Civilization

When Europe was living in the dark ages, Islamic civilization was blossoming, and the advances during this period are more relevant to the modern world than those of the Ancient Egyptians.

Muslims arrived in Spain in 711 C.E. They were mainly Arabs and Berbers of North Africa. Within two decades a majority of the inhabitants of Andalus accepted Islam freely in recognition of the peace, security and the freedom of religion. (Gothic Princess Sara). By 770 C.E. people of all races from North Africa and Arabs migrated to Andalusia (Spain and Portugal) by year 770 C.E.. During the reign of Abd Rahman, (755-788), they began the work of building an Islamic civilization. They had developed a civilization far in advance of any in Europe.

The Muslims of the Iberian Peninsula, who ruled Spain between 711 and 1492 C.E. are commonly known as the Moors. The word Moors is a word referring to the people who came from Morocco. The Christians of the Iberian Peninsula used this term for Muslims when the Muslims lost control of northern parts of Spain and Portugal.They called their land Andalus The word Andalusia is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus.

Who discovered America or the new world?. Muslims from Spain and West Africa arrived in the Americas at least five centuries before Columbus. They sailed to the west from the Spanish port of Delba (Palos). The Atlantic Ocean was called the Ocean of darkness an fog at this time. They returned after a long absence from a new land. People of Muslim origin are known to have accompanied Columbus and subsequent Spanish explorers to the new world Americas. All credit was given to Columbus and non to Muslims.

Muslims were defeated at Tours-Poitiers (about two-thirds of the way to Paris) during the month of Ramadan in 732 CE. Muslim control of Toulouse, Narbonne, Lyon and nearby territories varied from time to time.

Crystal Basket Lighting Hand Making

Adding a light fixture make a difference anywhere. Illumination is needed for indoors and outdoors. A chandelier is a source medium of light. The word Chandelier came from the Old French term chaundeler which means candlestick which is used as the source of light.

Our skilled artisans use glass crystal beads to hand craft crystal ceiling chandeliers, wall lights sconces appliques, lanterns, table lamps, floor lamps and. Metal basket skeletons are used to handle variety of requested shapes to support the beads, flowers, round glass grapes and rain drops icicles. The light go through the light fixtures draw nice shades at the surrounding walls. We supply decorators and artists with hand blown flowers, rain drops icicles and glass grapes. all come in variety of decorative colors. We supply glass parts for home improvements repairs and replacements. Jewelers utilize the middle hole hand blown flowers, rain drops and glass grapes to make jewelry such as earrings and necklaces

Civilization was born in Egypt

Egypt is the world’s oldest civilization. It is the gift of the Nile while its second largest city Alexandria is the gift of the Mediterranean. Egypt is considered by early Greek and Romans to be one of the oldest vacation spots.

All believing Muslims Jews and Christians believe that Pharaoh was the name of the Egyptian king during the time of Moses and he died drowned in the Red Sea when he and his men were chasing Moses and his men (Children of Israel) who were fleeing Egypt. Pharaoh was actually the title of ancient Egyptian rulers from 3200 BCE to 332 BCE. Rameses II was the ruler above who was drowned in the red sea and his body was saved later on till now as a mummy. Rameses-II was an intelligent and had great interest in arts and architecture.

The Koran stated that the pharaoh slaughtered the sons of Israel and letting their women live. Moses mother throw him into the Nile river due to her fear from the Pharaohs men to kill her son. Allah promised Moses’s mother not to fear or grieve. Allah would restore him to her and to make him of the apostles.

The Pharaoh’s family picked him up without realizing he might be for them a foe and a grief. Pharaoh’s wife ordered not to kill The baby citing that he is a cheering of the eye to her and would be their son. During that time, Allah supported the heart of Moses mother as a true believer and patient.

Moses’s Mother asked his sister to follow him. she looked after him from afar. Moses, the baby, refused all breast feeders. Later on, his sister advised the Pharaohs family of a caring breast feeder family. Moses accepted his new feeder. His new feeder was his mother. She was happy and Allah promise to her was a fact.

Moses grew up and escaped the city after killing a Coptic man during a fight between the Coptic man and one of the sons of Israel. Moses was in a great sorrow and cited that it was the action of Satan. Moses asked Allah to save him from the unjust people.

Moses went to another city and got married from the daughter of Showib. In his way back with his wife, Allah spoke to Moses to be his messenger to the Pharaohs. Moses asked to have Aaron, his brother to be with him. Allah honored Moses’s request and appointed Aaron as a prophet to help his brother.

Moses and his brother returned back to Egypt and asked the Pharaohs to believe and follow the right way worshiping Allah instead of worshiping the king of Pharaohs. Moses showed the Pharaoh all miracles as a proof that he is the messenger of Allah to them but in vain although many of the Pharaohs men believed in Moses as the messenger of Allah and turned to be a true believers.

Moses took the believers including the sons of Israel to Sinai crossing the Red Sea. Allah paved the sea to have Moses and his followers cross the water after the Moses followers feared from drowning. The Pharaohs followed them but Everyone accompanying Pharaoh was perished by Allah in the red sea.

Location and Geography

Egypt is located in the north eastern of Africa. It lies at the center of all routes that lead to and from Asia, Africa and Europe. It is bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Palestine, on the south by Sudan, and on the west by Libya.

Egypt area is about double the area of England and about 3 times the size of Texas. Egypt is 50 feet below sea level. Cairo is the capital. Alexandria is the second largest city after Cairo and is the largest sea port in Egypt. Other important cities are Giza, Aswan and Sinai. There are 5 oasis located in the desert close to the western borders: Farafrah, Bahriah, Dakhla, Kharijah, and the Siwah oases.

Most of Egypt is subtropical area. The climate is mild in winter and hot in summer. Egypt population is close to 70 million. Cairo is about 20 million and Alexandria is about 5 million.

Egypt depended on the Nile for water supply.The availability abundant water allowed the creation of a society which produced a great civilization.

The Nile River

The Nile River is the longest river in the world. The Nile river flows from south to north and is formed by three major sources: the White Nile, the Blue Nile and the Atbara.

The Nile river has its source in the highlands of the African country of Ethiopia. North of Cairo, the Nile splits into two branches the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east. Lake Nasser is a man-made lake created by the construction of the Aswan High Dam. The dam was built to regulate the flow of the Nile River.

The Aswan High Dam has caused other changes and is used also to generate electricity. The water surface of the lake has reduced the average temperature in the region.

The proximity of the Desert to the river is a constant reminder of the fragility of the narrow strip of life which survives all the way from Aswan to Cairo. Many of the dwellings and settlements have a very simple existence with few modern amenities.The history of Egypt is totally dominated by the River Nile. At one time nearly all transportation was by boat along the river.

Cairo

Cairo is the largest city in the Middle East and Africa.Cairo was founded by the Fatimid leader Jawhar Al-Sequilli in 969 AD, by an order from the Fatimid Khalif Al-Mo’iz lideenellah. It was named “the city of the 1000 minarets.

Cairo is Africa’s most populous city and the Arab world’s cultural center. People from all over the world visit Cairo to see the monuments and artifacts of ancient Egypt.

Cairo provides its visitors with great cultural destinations which include a vast amount of art galleries, music halls and cultural centers. Tourists can enjoy Khan El Khalili Bazaar while shopping for antiques, rugs, copper and many other oriental gifts

Cairo is the city where past and present meet. On its west side lays the Ancient Egyptian city of Memphis (Giza), the renowned capital of the Old Kingdom and the site of the Pyramids. A journey through Cairo is a journey through the history of old and ancient civilization.

Alexandria

Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great around 331 BC by. It was the capital of Egypt till AD 641 when a new capital Fustat was built which was Cairo later on. Currently, it is the second capital of Egypt after Cairo.

Alexandria is located in the northern part of Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea and is one of the most important sea ports in Egypt. It is a main summer resort and tourist attraction due to its beaches, museums and ancient history.

Alexandria is Egypt’s largest seaport, Egypt’s largest industrial city, major center for international trade and the second largest city in Egypt (Cairo is the largest city in Egypt). Alexandria is home to famous new Alexandria Library ( Bibliotheca Alexandrina ), Pharohs Lighthouse of Alexandria (one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) and Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa.

Alexandria museums are Alexandria Aquarium, The Alexandria National Museum, Graeco-Roman Museum, Royal Jewelry Museum, the museum of Fine Arts and the Cavafy museum.

Alexandria Palaces are Montaza Palace, in Montaza, Ras al-Tiin Palace, in Ras al-Tiin, Presidential Palace, in Maamoura and Palais d’Antoniadis, in Smoha.

Alexandria Library

Ancient Alexandria is the birth place of the modern world. Different great civilizations and cultures developed around Alexandria in different times. The ancient empires includes: Ancient Egyptians (c. 3000-1000 BC); Assyrians and Babylonians (c. 1000-500 BC); Persians (c. 550-330 BC); Greeks (c. 330-60 BC); and Romans (C. 60 BC – 140 AD).

Ptolemies founded the Museum or Royal Library of Alexandria in 283 BC and Alexandria University. during the Greek Era. Scientists arrived at scientific facts concerning the earth’s rotation around the sun and approximate circumference of the planet. The university was also famous for the study of medicine particularly anatomy and surgery. Most famous of the university scientists were the geometrician Euclides, the geographer Ptolemy and the Egyptian historian Maniton.

Alexandria library was the ancient world’s single greatest archive of knowledge. It has been estimated that at one time the large Library of Alexandria held over half a million documents from Assyria, Greece, Persia, Egypt and India.

The reasons of the loss of the library are not known. The great library was burned and much of ancient history, literature and learning was lost.

Sinai is a a triangular peninsula in Egypt and is the only part of Egypt located in Asia. The Sinai peninsula has historically been the center of conflict due to its location and history.

Sinai

The Sinai peninsula is divided into 2 governorates North Sinai and South Sinai. The most popular tourist destination in Sinai are Mount Sinai and St. Catherine’s Monastery.

Sinai climate is the coldest in Egypt because of its high altitudes and mountainous topographies.

The Suez Canal

The idea of the canal dates back to the ancient times during the role of Tuthmosis III, to link the Red sea to the Nile River to have the trade route along the river to India. The canal had 2 parts during the Persian King Darius I and Ptolemaic era, the Roman Empire and the Islamic conquest. The canal was abandoned upon the discovery of the trade route around Africa.

The French Engineers of Napoleon suggested to link the Mediterranean to the Red Sea around 1800 A.D. to have a shorter trade route to india. French Consul in Cairo and famous Canal digger Ferdinand de Lesseps. He was granted a decree by the khedive Said of Egypt to run the Canal for 99 years after completion.

The Suez Canal construction Project runs north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in Northeastern Egypt. lasts 7 years to be completed (1859 – 1867) in addition to a major highway linking the capital Cairo and new city of Ismailia. The Suez Canal was officially inaugurated by Khedive Ismail in 1869. Many Egyptians workers died during digging the canal due to bad working conditions. In 1956, Egypt seized the canal, which caused Britain, France and Israel to attack Egypt. The United Nations declared the Suez canal is an Egyptian property.

The Suez canal stopped in 1967 due to war with Israel. The canal was reopened in 1975. Today, There is no level difference therefore there is no locks and ships traffic is monitored by stations. The Suez canal handles %14 of world shipping.

Modern Egypt

Mohammad Ali is considered the founder of Modern Egypt. He sponsored scientists and artists to transfer modern science from Europe to Egypt. He built a ship yard in Alexandria, military academy, schools, dams, canals, barrages and factories.

Ismail followed the steps of Mohammed Ali to modernize Egypt. His main achievements were the railroads and the Suez Canal which was opened to international navigation in 1869. He focused on agriculture, industry, construction and architecture.

Egypt officially broke off from Ottoman empire in 1914 and turned to be a British Colony. Mostafa Kamel, Muhammad Fareed and Saad Zaghloul led the resistance and national movement against the British colonization leading the 1919 Revolution calling for independence. The British occupation of Egypt came to an end and the country was declared as an independent state in 1922. The first Egyptian Constitution was issued in 1923.

Egyptian Gifts, Souvenirs, Handcrafts

In Quran,
Chapter 27 “The Ant””27.36”: So when he came to Sulaiman, he said: What! will you help me with wealth? But what Allah has given me is better than what He has given you. Nay, you are exultant because of your gift;
The prophet, peace upon him, said “offer gifts to love each other”

The gift definition is acquired without effort or payment or obligation. The types of gifts are good indicators of what people think of each other.

As a wedding habits in the Islamic world, the man is expected to bring costly gifts during the engagement period. the groom is asked to bring gifts of gold such as long necklace, gold earrings and bracelets. Usually, he stands in front of her family during the engagement ceremony saying, “This is the dowry of your daughter.” He begins counting the gifts in front of the person who will perform the wedding ceremony.

Papyrus

Papyrus is made from the stem of the papyrus plant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Papyrus is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt and throughout the Mediterranean region. Ancient Egyptians used this plant as a writing material and for making boats, mattresses, mats, rope, sandals, hats, fish traps, trays, floor mats, roofs, ceilings, fences and baskets. Today,People harvest papyrus, which is used to manufacture items that are sold or used locally in East and West African communities..

Perfume Bottles

Perfume Bottles serve as a beautiful additions to any collections, decorations, ornaments or may be filled with scented oils and fragrances or as candle holders. Our beautiful mouth blown exotic perfume bottles are made of pure imported European Pyrex, hand painted, kiln-fired and accented with 24 K gold. Every bottle comes in assorted colors which make it a unique masterpiece. The bottles arrive wrapped in Egyptian cotton and bubbles inside 3-ply box.

We have a variety of design boxes to choose. They range from plain boxes to elegant gift boxes with show window . You can even request your logo to be printed on the box. Mouth Blowing and Hand Painting Perfume Bottles Process

The glass is heated at the end of a long pyrex glass rod and then the crafter handling it mouth blows through the rod for the desired design. A glass stopper is used as the perfume applicator. The last step is hand painting the clear glass perfume bottles. Thus, perfume bottles and glass vases are made in various colors and designs.

All perfume bottles are hand painted in clear, red, green, blue, gold, amber, violet, purple and multi colors. Etched, Crystal effects, Ceramic, Bohemia, Marble, Mardi, Milan, Italian designs and custom orders are available for volumes ranges from 1 ml to more than 100 ml.

Equestrian

Exercise and fitness play an integral part in the life of a Muslim believer without mixing of the sexes or wearing clothing not matching The Islamic dress code known in Quran and Sunnah. In a [Sahih Muslim] hadith, the Prophet said “Teach your children swimming, archery and horse riding”. In another narration “Practice archery and horseback riding”. Egypt Gift Shops offer hand crafted Leather saddles, velvet saddles, horse back riding blankets, Camel riding back blankets, halters, gold plated nose bands, silver plated nose bands and breast collars for exercises and horse shows

Linens

Ancient early Egyptians wove linens of beautiful designs as shown on Mummy cloths and paintings. Embroidery and weaving were taught from generation to generation. The city of Akhmim was known of the best Embroidery masters in Ancient Egypt. Today, it is the center of weaving industry.

Embroidery is a decorative needlework using embroidery thread stitches to create variety of designs and patterns on fabric. Embroidery can be used on dresses, blouses, bed sheets, table cloth, cushions, upholstered furniture and quilts.

Women Clothing

Rules regarding Muslim women attire are derived from the Koran, Sunna of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Muslim women dress cover the entire body, with the exception of the face and the hands and should not be eye catching or reveal the shape of the body. Muslim women wearing Islamic dress work and study without any problems

The khimar word in Arabic means coverage. Khimar is an external covering and internal heart veil for Muslim Women. Women should not show her beauty, adornments or private parts except for their husbands. The clothing should not be tight, provocative or attract men’s attention but loose and modest. Women should not dress in a way similar to the non believers or men. The khimar ranges from full length floor grazed overhead khimar called chador, mid calf, knee, thigh, hips, waist to short khimar named Al Amira hijab. The khimar has variety of designs regardless of the length. Arm holes, sleeves and front cardigan are among variety of khimars sewing tailor designs

Niqab or facial veil is a cloth covering the Muslim woman face and leaves the eyes visible. There are many designs of niqab worn by Muslim women around the world. The two most common niqabs are the half niqab and the full niqab. The half niqab is a simple length of fabric with elastic or ties leaves the eyes and part of the forehead visible. The full niqab completely covers the face including the forehead except eyes..

The chador is a long cloak that covers a woman’s entire body. Like the khimar, the chador wraps around the head, but instead of hanging just to the middle of back, the chador drapes to a woman’s feet. Koran tells all believers men and women to lower their gaze and wear modest clothing. The khimar is an Islamic modest dress garment covers partially or fully Muslim women body from head according to Koran and Sunnah

Swimwear

Muslim women wear modest Islamic bathing Swimwear to please Allah not to show their private parts or bosoms in public. The burqini suits covers the Muslim women from head to toes. The swimsuits are suitable for Muslim women and girls for swimming tournaments, schools, beaches, pools and gym.

Herbs

Herbs grown in Egypt in deserts and mountainous. Prophet Muhammad (Peace upon him) indicated that herbs can treat many diseases. Herbs are a source for extracting natural remedy for many serious diseases. For example, morphine is extracted from opium and used as a strong pain killer, especially after surgeries.

Foot Health is Essential for a Happy Life

Most people don’t take much care of their feet except for people who get regular foot massage pedicures at beauty salons, spas, home…etc. people develop foot pains as early as their 20s. By getting older, some foot problems are inevitable but the progress of many problems can be slowed down.

Daily care of the feet is important not only to treat foot problems but also to prevent them. Podiatrists suggest washing and drying the feet thoroughly at least once a day and massage cream into the feet after bathing. For an odor problem, use a deodorant. Tired foot therapy is a good way to relax them and aid and boost blood circulation.

Foot ills such as ingrown toenails, calluses, corns, blisters and bunions can be treated successfully, if not prevented, with appropriate attention from a podiatrist. Rapid Soothing foot baths, glossy nail polish and pumice stones will not end foot ailments by months of poor foot treatment.

Metal Foot Pedicure Bowl

For the treatment of calluses and corns, soaking the feet in warm, soapy water for few minutes. Gently rub calluses or corns with a luffa. Remove dead skin with a firm brush. Massage moisturizing cream and oil into the skin. To prevent ingrown toenails, nails should be cut straight across and should extend a bit further than the end of the toe to prevent ingrown nails. Soaking the foot in warm water to soften the nail. Then, slip a small bit of sterile cotton under the nail so that it will be directed to grow properly.

Massage Pedicure Bowls, Kitchen Bathroom Sinks, Art, Basins, Lamps, Lanterns, Roof Finials, Water Features, Bird Bath Pools, Table Tops, Tiles, Decor