All posts by Mostfa

Benefits of a Copper Pedicure Bowl

Soaking Foot in A copper Pedicure Bowl

Copper has been used for thousands of years through history. Ancient Egyptians and Romans understood the natural antimicrobial properties of copper. They used it to build their hand tools, decorative jewelry and weapons as shown on museums displayed all over the world. Copper is durable, natural, earth friendly, reusable, recyclable and beautiful.

Copper pedicure tubs offer a wide range of health benefits. soaking feet in a copper bowl removes odor, shaves, smooths skin, helps to absorb the healing properties of copper into blood. Foot massage helps improve blood circulation, removes dead skin cells, improves the immune system, reduces joints, muscles inflammation, keeps toe nails clean and prevents cuticles dryness and cracking of the nails.

Soaking foot service is DIY at home using portable bowls or at Beauty salons, Clinics, Health care, Spas, resorts or at massage wellness centers using clean and sterile tools to maintain the hygiene and toenails growth. There are various types of pedicures while most tubs include foot soak, foot and calf massage, foot scrubbing, manicure and nail cosmetics.

Our copper foot basins spa pedicure bowls tubs are handmade by highly skilled Egyptian artisans that have learned the trade of copper smith for generations. Each piece is a work of art. Our bowls are Comprised using one Piece Construction using Pure Natural lead free copper to achieve sturdy and non leak bowls. Due to the nature of copper handcrafting, the bowls might have unintentional few imperfections or variations which add value, interest and characteristic to the bowls.

The soaking foot process is to allow feet to soak in a pedicure bowl of warm to hot water for few minutes. Soaking feet in water can be performed with or without scented essential oils or foaming gel. Rub the foot after soaking. Towel dry the foot when finished.

Massage can be performed with or without oil or lotion. Hold the foot with both hands,Press as deeply as you feel relieved, focus on sore spots, Rub the top of the foot firmly with your thumbs, move slowly all the way up to the ankle. rub in a circular motion around the ankle bone on either side. Make small circles with medium to heavy pressure around the entire heel. Repeat this action on the ball of the foot. Use a fist to massage the arch of the foot. Bend your toes back and forth, slide your thumb and index finger back to the base of the toe, Massage the sides of each toe and the space between the toes. Massage the tops and bottoms of each toe, Grab your heel and squeeze.

Benefits of a Copper Sink

Hand Hammered Bucket Copper Sink

Ancient Egyptians realized the antimicrobial properties of copper long before the concept of microbes became understood in the 19th century. Copper and its alloys, such as brass, bronze and copper-nickel, are antimicrobial, which kills harmful bacteria, viruses, fungi, microbes and germs.

There are endless options in shapes, designs and finishes for copper sinks. Most hand Copper sinks are one of a kind. Each sink will have its own unique characteristics – not two sinks are identical in color, size, or design variations. Due to the Artisan Crafted nature of copper sinks, which may result in some unique differences in dimensions and finish, not 2 sinks are a like. These sinks can last a lifetime. In fact, some antique copper sinks are still in use that were crafted a century ago.

Copper sinks come in many finishes: Natural, antique brown patina, antique dark patina, verdigris and traditional shiny polished. The finish of a natural copper sink is naturally reddish in color and will vary from one sink to another. The sink may present dark spots or streaks due to the nature of the copper itself and the final look of the sink depends on the copper sheet it is made from. The color of the copper will gradually change with time, and it will take on a warm medium patina as it ages.

Some finishes such as the verdigris are achieved by accelerating the aging process which results in a distinctive green blue turquoise rustic patina color. Fire burnt patina is achieved by burning the copper using regular fire torch to show natural copper rainbow colors hues. Mechanical or chemical process polish the copper to its original bare unfinished shiny look.

The best way to clean a copper sink is with regular soap and water. A mild detergent liquid dish washing soap and warm water can be used.  Abrasive cleaners that may scratch or dull the surface to be avoided. Wipe clean and rinse completely with water immediately. Water spots to be dried after using a soft cloth. Wax application will help maintain the luster of the sink. Copper is not particularly heat-resistant, and may also be damaged by acidic food and drinks such as orange juice. In addition, smooth copper sinks are more susceptible to showing scratches or dents over time.

Copper sinks has the flexibility to choose drain holes locations . Most copper bathroom sinks center the drain in the middle, while copper kitchen sinks have an offset design that allows you to put dishes or glass on one side while scrubbing up over the drain.

copper is recyclable, used over and over again and is easy to be modified. Good quality high conductivity copper can be recycled by simple melting either to finished shape or for subsequent fabrication. Where scrap has been contaminated beyond acceptable limits it is necessary to refine it back to pure copper using conventional secondary metal refining techniques that provide a useful supplement to supplies of primary copper.

While a copper sink has many advantages, it has a high reactivity and cost more than stainless steel, porcelain, or ceramic sinks.

You can browse our selection of copper bathroom sinks and kitchen sinks.

Copper Sink Buyer’s Guide

Bathtub Shape Copper Sink

Copper is unique among all elements and considered to be the first metal to be worked by man in addition to gold and iron. Copper ore holds only a small percentage of copper. There are two main types of copper ore copper oxide ores and copper sulfide ores which accounts for about 50 percent of copper production. Many of our familiar objects are made from copper such as coins, bowls, statuary and cooking ware. Nowadays, electric wires, tubes and construction roofing, plumbing and industrial machinery are made from copper.

Making a decision to buy copper sinks for bathroom or kitchen is hard. We will try to help buyers to make a decision based on our experience. The copper ore is formed into metal sheets which are fashioned into beautiful sinks. Copper makes a statement of quality, comfort and beauty for any object or project.

Many copper sinks from China, Mexico and India who are the main suppliers of copper sinks worldwide are made from recycled copper. Such cheap copper is melted down including harmful unwanted impurities. Buyers should buy copper sinks which are not made with any lead or mercury containing alloys. Such low grade copper is unsafe and unhealthy.

Copper surfaces can be satin smooth or textured with small hammer impressions. A smooth finished sink reflects a modern or contemporary style and more difficult to maintain while a textured sink fits well in rustic old world classic decor and absorbs marks and scratches. Hammering copper sink will add rigidity and strength compared with smooth surface copper sink. Also, bottom ring drain hole sinks are more sturdy than flush drain holes.

Copper sinks often come in various finishes. Copper has a living finish and never stop changing. Coating copper with a protective surface lacquer does not stop such change completely. However, buyers should be aware that sealing copper surfaces might keep finish for longer time but will lose health copper properties such as antibacterial, antimicrobial, anti fungus, …..etc.

Smooth and textured bare unfinished raw shiny polished copper sinks needs to be maintained periodically using a rug, lemon and salt to keep the surface luster. Otherwise, a darker patina will be formed as mentioned earlier.

Green patina is very popular to match rustic classic decor. Expedited patination close to natural rust process using ammonia is performed and attain decorative verde finish. Other darker patinas are utilized using heat and special mixtures.


Alexandria is the ancient city left behind by the Greeks and Romans, the city that young Alexander the Great had envisioned as a great port for his empire and the city of Cleopatra. Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt right after Cairo and the largest sea port. The population is 5 million. Alexandria is about 30 km along the coast of the Mediterranean. Egyptians called Alexandria ” The pearl of the Mediterranean”.

Ancient Alexandria is the birth place of the modern world. Different great civilizations and cultures developed around Alexandria in different times. The ancient empires includes: Ancient Egyptians (c. 3000-1000 BC); Assyrians and Babylonians (c. 1000-500 BC); Persians (c. 550-330 BC); Greeks (c. 330-60 BC); and Romans (C. 60 BC – 140 AD).

Ptolemies founded the Museum or Royal Library of Alexandria in 283 BC and Alexandria University. during the Greek Era. Scientists arrived at scientific facts concerning the earth’s rotation around the sun and approximate circumference of the planet. The university was also famous for the study of medicine particularly anatomy and surgery. Most famous of the university scientists were the geometrician Euclides, the geographer Ptolemy and the Egyptian historian Maniton

Macedonian ruler, Alexander the Great conquered Egypt from the Pharos in 323 B.C. Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great. Alexandria became the capital of the Ptolemic rule in Egypt, where stately palaces and gardens were built. Alexandria was well-known not only as a center of outstanding achievements in arts, science, industry and trade but also as the prime sea harbor on the Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria Lighthouse is considered by the Greeks as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Alexandria was further well-known for its University, which symbolized a great civilization. Alexandria was considered to be the most important trading city on the Mediterranean and regarded as a cultural and scientific center. Alexandria was noted for its commerce and wealth.

French troops led by Napoleon stormed the city on July 2nd 1798. That is why many streets in Alexandria are written in both Arabic and French. Later on, the British expedition arrived the city in 1801. The British won a considerable victory over the French at the Battle of Alexandria in March 1801.

There are about 40 cities named Alexandria worldwide including 15 Alexandria cities in USA and 2 Alexandria cities in Canada.

The Alexandria library was the hub of scholars from everywhere. The scholars gathered to study astronomy, physics and anatomy. The library destruction more than 1600 years ago is a mystery buried in time.

Alexandria library was the ancient world’s single greatest archive of knowledge. It has been estimated that at one time the large Library of Alexandria held over half a million documents from Assyria, Greece, Persia, Egypt and India.

The reasons of the loss of the library are not known. The great library was burned and much of ancient history, literature and learning was lost.

Today, The new high-tech library, designed by Norwegian architects, looks from the distance like a silvery sun rising. It is located on the edge of the Alexandria Mediterranean sea side.

Ironworks History

The first sign of iron use come from the ancient Egyptians. Ancient Egyptians used wrought iron for hardware. The structural use of wrought iron dates from the middle ages, when bars of wrought iron would be used to tie masonry arches and domes and as structural building material for construction. Egypt switched using bronze to iron during the iron age. The iron age was underway by 1000 BC. Iron is a metal extracted from iron ore. The most common ore is iron oxide. Iron is found in iron oxides. Egyptians mixed iron with carbon to form wrought iron. Wrought iron is pure iron having a small carbon content. Wrought iron has been used for thousands of years.

Ornamental ironwork is always referred to as wrought iron. Wrought iron means worked iron. Ancient Egyptians found that much harder iron can be created by long heating the wrought iron in a bed of charcoal. Ancient Egyptians separate iron from iron ore in furnace. Iron is the most used of all the metals due to low cost and high strength over all other metals. Iron is not found as a free metal in nature. Iron is one of the most common elements on Earth.

Ancient Egyptians were the first builders in history. Egyptologists and historians consider ancient Egyptians high in architectural design and construction engineering using raw materials and simple tools. Nile valley is home of the pyramids and sphinx which are among the famous architectural buildings in the world. The architectural elements used by the ancient Egyptian builders were mainly stones without mortar. The main area of cultural expression in ancient Egypt was architecture. Wrought iron has been used in buildings from the earliest days of civilization. The use of wrought iron in tension guaranteed its wide use over cast iron as cast iron is strong only in compression. Wrought iron is unlike cast, in that it is not brittle, and seldom breaks. For this reason, wrought iron work is frequently delicate.

Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of France in 1804. He considered himself the greatest world ruler since Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar.

Napoleon conquered Italy and Egypt. Napoleon’s fascination with his conquest of Egypt and Italy created so much interest in everything related to both Mediterranean countries. This is how the European iron work has roots in Egypt.

Furniture in the European style contains unique architectural elements in the design can also be very ornamental and have geometric elements as well.

European wrought iron work can be very beautiful with iron leafs, rosettes and vines.The wrought iron European furniture usually has polished marble tops.

Wrought iron furniture is a must for classic old world European style look.

The demand for higher dynamic loads in bridges and warehouse buildings, and the ever greater spans of train sheds towards the end of the nineteenth century, led the designers of buildings to acquire the technology developed to build ships of iron, and create beams of riveted wrought iron rolled sections. By the turn of the century this had led to buildings completely framed in wrought iron, and later steel and girder sections.

wrought iron is one of the most durable materials compared to wood and aluminum. However, wrought iron corrosion resistance, cost and weight are disadvantages compared to the same materials.

As far as existing iron structures, iron work is often found fastened together with riveted joints. Iron work is commonly supposed to be nearly free of maintenance. Unlike wood work, iron work is left to rust for long time, The only attention that much important iron work receives, is periodic major overhaul, at great expense. The most common reason for the rusting of wrought ironwork, is the gathering of water in places which will not dry.
wrought iron outdoors gazebo

World Historical Gates

The following are the most important gates in history:

  1. The Gates of Alexander: The Gates of Alexander were a barrier built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the barbarians of the north from the south.
  2. Sungnyemun Gate: Seoul, Korea
  3. Kashmiri Gate: Delhi, India
  4. Panama Canal Locks:the largest canal gates in the planet
  5. Gates of Old City, Jerusalem: There were four gates to the Old City during the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. one set of gates on each side. Suleiman the top of the Ottoman empire built eleven gates. The gates closed before sunset and opened at sunrise. The gates are Gates Al Gadid, Gates Alamoud, Gates AlSahairad, Gates Sittna Maryam, Gates alMaghariba, Gates ElNabi Daoud, Gates alKhalel and 4 other sealed gates
  6. Cairo Gates:

Gawhar El Sakaly during the Fatimid reign (969-1171) established El Fostat city or Cairo of El Moez which is now a part of greater Cairo. The city had many buildings and parks. It was a hub for rulers and princes. He installed walls including entry gates around the city to enter or exit the city.

The walls were instrumental to protect the city in case of war and for management of traffic in state of peace. The city was like a citadel. Some of Cairo Gates still exist till today.

The gates of Cairo are as follow:
Gates Al Wazer
, It was built in 1174 by Qaraqush, Saladin’s Minister, to defend the capital. It is no longer exist. It was called Bab El Haded Gates

Gates El Bahr, one of the outside Cairo gates at the north wall

Gates El Seada

Gates El Selsela, El Jabel Citadel
It is known nowadays as Alarab Gates. It overlooked El Jabel Citadel. This gates was removed due to a crack in 1884.

Gates El GharebIt was destroyed and replaced by Al Azhar University.

Gates El Barkia, Built by Saladin in 1184

Gates El Gaded , built in 1170, It is still exist.

Gates El Husenia, This gate was destroyed in 1895.

Gates El Khalk , built in 1241

Gates El Khoga , No longer exist

Gates Darb El Laban, built in 1092, called Bab El Metwali.

Gates Qasr El Selehdar, established in 1347

Gates El Qela

Gates Al Akhdar, Was built by the Fatimid and still exist

Gates El Qantara, established by Salah El Din El Ayoubi in 1173, it is no longer exist

Gates El Ghory

Gates El Fetouh, established in 1087, it is still exist.

Gates El Nasr, established in 1085, it is still exist.

Gates Khan El Khalili, established in 1511, It is still exist

Gates El Tawfik, established in 1097

Gates El Farag

Gates Qayet Bey, established in 1494, other name is El Sayeda Aisha Gates

Egypt Architectural Antiques Doors, Gates

France had colonial empires in 17, 18 and 19th centuries. When Napoleon arrived in Cairo during the French invasion of Egypt in 1798. his French designers influenced the furniture design style in Egypt to be in traditional European taste. French land forces surrendered to the British on September 2, 1801.

Many of the architectural designs in Egypt are influenced by the French short occupation to Egypt dating from the late 19th century. Many building in Egypt have French colonial doors, wrought iron French style gates and French design balconies.

Most of Egypt French colonial doors consist of top transom, and 2 panels. Egyptians call the whole set of 2 doors and top transom as one door. The transom is usually is hand forged from wrought iron. The top of the panels are hand crafted from wrought iron. The rest of the French Colonial doors are made from Pine. Each half view door features a window ornamented with hand-forged and riveted ironwork a top heavy trimmed panels. The window is hinged on the interior side of the door, allowing it to be opened for ventilation. The doors have various dings, scratches, chips, and holes typical of an old door. The wrought iron of the transom matches the wrought iron at the top of the panels.

The wrought iron workmanship is by hot banding the wrought iron for acquiring the requested shapes and all connections are riveted. No welding was known at the time of production.

The French colonial and Moorish doors have many different designs and sizes. Many of the doors have a width around 45 inches and height of panels is around 65″. Most of the old doors were made more than 70 years ago. Owners of houses in the past competed over the beauty of the house architecture, whether the engravings in the interior or the outer facades and doors

The old doors decorative details signs reflect the culture and identity of the house owner.  Arabic language Quran verses on the door show that the owner is a Muslim. The menorah seven candles and Star of David on the door shows that the owner is Jewish. Unfortunately, continuing to demolish old houses will lead to the loss of unique identity of Egypt heritage.

The handmade and unparalleled architectural antiques are displayed on the market as artistic pieces, and owners of palaces, properties, antiques dealers, fans, store owners and showrooms antiques traders inside and outside Egypt buy them.

A1 Egypt carries a wide range of both antiques and reproduction ornamental iron gates, doors, balconies, fences, shutters, windows, tiles, marble and other hard to find designs. Our wonderful selection of architectural treasures makes us the main hub in Egypt for architects, builders, decorators, collectors, interior designers, developers and fans. We offer thousands of unique, unusual, and hard-to-find home decor items to our international clientele.

We buy our inventory of architectural salvage from demolished or about-to-be-demolished buildings all over Egypt. Because our inventory is ever-changing, we are unable to catalog all items. However, we keep and have access to a constant inventory of all types of architectural antiques.

wrought iron gates and balconies of this building are available
Moorish Wooden Arch

Egypt Currency Roots

Egyptian Money

Egyptian pound is the currency of Egypt. the abbreviation is LE or L.E. Since the beginning of the circulation of silver and gold coins in Egypt and until 1834, no specified monetary unit existed to serve as a basis for the monetary system in Egypt. In 1836 the Egyptian pound was put into circulation.

Because Egyptian funds were insufficient to satisfy the requirements of large transactions as well as foreign trade, and because of the use of foreign coins for this purpose, legal exchange rates were fixed by force of law for important foreign currencies which became acceptable in the settlement of internal transactions. Fluctuations in the value of silver in addition to the adoption of the gold standard by most of the countries trading with Egypt, particularly the United Kingdom, led to the application of the gold standard, on a de facto basis, after almost thirty years of a bimetallic standard.

Following the financial crisis resulting from the accumulation of Egypt’s external debt, the Monetary Reform Law was issued in 1885. By virtue of this Law, the gold standard became the basis for the Egyptian monetary system, and the country had a unified currency, the Egyptian gold pound.

Gold coins remained the medium of exchange until 1898 when the National Bank of Egypt was established and was granted, by the government, the privilege to issue Egyptian banknotes, payable in gold for a period of 50 years. The National Bank of Egypt started issuing banknotes for the first time on the 3rd of April 1899.

The currency circulated in Egypt consisted of gold Sterling pounds and Egyptian banknotes convertible into gold. This situation continued up to 2/8/1914 when a special Decree was issued making Egyptian banknotes a legal tender and suspending their convertibility into gold. Thus, the Egyptian pound banknote became the basic currency unit, and the base of the Egyptian monetary system was changed to fiduciary paper money standard. Accordingly, gold coins were no longer used in circulation, with the result that the volume of note issue increased from LE 11.6 million at the end of 1915 to LE 3557.0 million at the end of 1980, and further to LE 38320.0 million at the end of 1999. In 1930, for the first time in the history of Egyptian banknotes, a watermark was used in issued banknotes. This was followed, towards the end of 1968, by using a metallic thread (in notes issued by the Central Bank of Egypt) as a guarantee against counterfeit instead of dependence on complexity of colors .Other features against counterfeit were found in the detailed specifications of each currency. Holograms are currently added to large denomination notes.

On the 19th of July 1960, Law No.250 was promulgated. It was amended in November of the same year by Law No.277 with respect to the Central Bank of Egypt and the National Bank of Egypt. The Law provided for the establishment of the Central Bank of Egypt conferring upon the CBE the right of issuing Egyptian banknotes. Several changes were introduced with respect to the watermark, the designs shown on the notes and the colors.

The Central Bank of Egypt started issuing banknotes using local printing plant instead of printing them abroad. The plant’s production of banknotes in different denominations started in December 1968. The Bank also served some Arab central banks in printing their banknotes.

In view of the increasing need of banknotes to facilitate transactions resulting from the growth of economic activity, following the introduction of the open-door policy, the Central Bank of Egypt issued notes of large denominations (20,50,100).It launched the denomination of 20 pounds in May 1977 and 100 pounds in May 1979 and 50 pounds in March 1993.

Moorish Civilization

When Europe was living in the dark ages, Islamic civilization was blossoming, and the advances during this period are more relevant to the modern world than those of the Ancient Egyptians.

Muslims arrived in Spain in 711 C.E. They were mainly Arabs and Berbers of North Africa. Within two decades a majority of the inhabitants of Andalus accepted Islam freely in recognition of the peace, security and the freedom of religion. (Gothic Princess Sara). By 770 C.E. people of all races from North Africa and Arabs migrated to Andalusia (Spain and Portugal) by year 770 C.E.. During the reign of Abd Rahman, (755-788), they began the work of building an Islamic civilization. They had developed a civilization far in advance of any in Europe.

The Muslims of the Iberian Peninsula, who ruled Spain between 711 and 1492 C.E. are commonly known as the Moors. The word Moors is a word referring to the people who came from Morocco. The Christians of the Iberian Peninsula used this term for Muslims when the Muslims lost control of northern parts of Spain and Portugal.They called their land Andalus The word Andalusia is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus.

Who discovered America or the new world?. Muslims from Spain and West Africa arrived in the Americas at least five centuries before Columbus. They sailed to the west from the Spanish port of Delba (Palos). The Atlantic Ocean was called the Ocean of darkness an fog at this time. They returned after a long absence from a new land. People of Muslim origin are known to have accompanied Columbus and subsequent Spanish explorers to the new world Americas. All credit was given to Columbus and non to Muslims.

Muslims were defeated at Tours-Poitiers (about two-thirds of the way to Paris) during the month of Ramadan in 732 CE. Muslim control of Toulouse, Narbonne, Lyon and nearby territories varied from time to time.

Crystal Basket Lighting Hand Making

Adding a light fixture make a difference anywhere. Illumination is needed for indoors and outdoors. A chandelier is a source medium of light. The word Chandelier came from the Old French term chaundeler which means candlestick which is used as the source of light.

Our skilled artisans use glass crystal beads to hand craft crystal ceiling chandeliers, wall lights sconces appliques, lanterns, table lamps, floor lamps and. Metal basket skeletons are used to handle variety of requested shapes to support the beads, flowers, round glass grapes and rain drops icicles. The light go through the light fixtures draw nice shades at the surrounding walls. We supply decorators and artists with hand blown flowers, rain drops icicles and glass grapes. all come in variety of decorative colors. We supply glass parts for home improvements repairs and replacements. Jewelers utilize the middle hole hand blown flowers, rain drops and glass grapes to make jewelry such as earrings and necklaces