Alexandria is the ancient city left behind by the Greeks and Romans, the city that young Alexander the Great had envisioned as a great port for his empire and the city of Cleopatra. Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt right after Cairo and the largest sea port. The population is 5 million. Alexandria is about 30 km along the coast of the Mediterranean. Egyptians called Alexandria ” The pearl of the Mediterranean”.
Ancient Alexandria is the birth place of the modern world. Different great civilizations and cultures developed around Alexandria in different times. The ancient empires includes: Ancient Egyptians (c. 3000-1000 BC); Assyrians and Babylonians (c. 1000-500 BC); Persians (c. 550-330 BC); Greeks (c. 330-60 BC); and Romans (C. 60 BC – 140 AD).
Ptolemies founded the Museum or Royal Library of Alexandria in 283 BC and Alexandria University. during the Greek Era. Scientists arrived at scientific facts concerning the earth’s rotation around the sun and approximate circumference of the planet. The university was also famous for the study of medicine particularly anatomy and surgery. Most famous of the university scientists were the geometrician Euclides, the geographer Ptolemy and the Egyptian historian Maniton
Macedonian ruler, Alexander the Great conquered Egypt from the Pharos in 323 B.C. Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great. Alexandria became the capital of the Ptolemic rule in Egypt, where stately palaces and gardens were built. Alexandria was well-known not only as a center of outstanding achievements in arts, science, industry and trade but also as the prime sea harbor on the Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria Lighthouse is considered by the Greeks as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Alexandria was further well-known for its University, which symbolized a great civilization. Alexandria was considered to be the most important trading city on the Mediterranean and regarded as a cultural and scientific center. Alexandria was noted for its commerce and wealth.
French troops led by Napoleon stormed the city on July 2nd 1798. That is why many streets in Alexandria are written in both Arabic and French. Later on, the British expedition arrived the city in 1801. The British won a considerable victory over the French at the Battle of Alexandria in March 1801.
There are about 40 cities named Alexandria worldwide including 15 Alexandria cities in USA and 2 Alexandria cities in Canada.
The Alexandria library was the hub of scholars from everywhere. The scholars gathered to study astronomy, physics and anatomy. The library destruction more than 1600 years ago is a mystery buried in time.
Alexandria library was the ancient world’s single greatest archive of knowledge. It has been estimated that at one time the large Library of Alexandria held over half a million documents from Assyria, Greece, Persia, Egypt and India.
The reasons of the loss of the library are not known. The great library was burned and much of ancient history, literature and learning was lost.
Today, The new high-tech library, designed by Norwegian architects, looks from the distance like a silvery sun rising. It is located on the edge of the Alexandria Mediterranean sea side.